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About Aggregates
Aggregates are the building blocks of everything around us. Natural aggregates, which include crushed stone, gravel and sand, are vital to a healthy, growing economy. Aggregates literally serve as the foundation of modern life. These examples from the National Stone, Sand and Gravel Association show how aggregates are used in our communities: Aggregates are used in nearly all residential, commercial and industrial building construction and in most public works projects, including roads, highways and bridges; railroad beds; dams; airports;...
Crushed Stone in the United States
Per capita consumption of aggregates in the United States is 10 tons annually. Because of transportation costs, it’s important for construction aggregates to be readily available near major markets. Aggregates are most commonly used within 50 miles of their place of extraction. There are more than 10,000 aggregate quarries nationwide, with 70 percent of all counties in the United States having an aggregate operation. Aggregates will continue to play an increasingly important role in the economy in the future as the need to restore and...
Cement Manufacturing Basics
Cement manufacturing starts at a quarry where limestone and shale are mined, crushed and blended with sand, mill scale and clay. These raw materials are introduced into a rotary kiln where temperatures can exceed 2700 degrees Farenheit. Under these conditions the raw materials experience chemical and physical changes to form clinker. Clinker and gypsum are introduced to a finish mill where they are ground until a desired fineness is achieved. Changes can be made to the raw materials, burning temperatures and finish mills to create different...
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